June 23, 2017

The Biggest Obstacles For China’s $900 Billion Silk Road

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The Biggest Obstacles For China’s $900 Billion Silk Road

By Global Risk Insights - Jun 22, 2017, 2:00 PM CDT

China’s grand vision of One Belt, One Road aims to facilitate connections between countries and peoples across Eurasia and boost investments and trade. The Chinese government must not neglect domestic challenges that could undermine its efforts.

The Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st-Century New Maritime Silk Road, known as One Belt, One Road, is a foreign policy proposed by the Chinese President Xi Jinping to build roads, ports, and railways to connect Eurasia. The initiative spans overland and across the oceans, involving 60 countries along the two routes, covering 4.4 billion people and accounts for over 40 percent of the world’s GDP. The initiative is the most ambitious foreign policy that any contemporary Chinese leader has ever introduced, framed on the basis of mutual benefits and facilitates connectivity of policy, trade, financial, infrastructure, and people-to-people between the countries involved.

Both domestic and foreign Chinese observers have devoted a lot of efforts to figure out what this one belt, one road means and what it does. Many have outlined the external political risks that affect the implementation of the one belt, one road. But domestic risks and challenges that could undermine the one belt, one road also deserve equal examination.

Sustain support of one belt, one road from basing on national pride to basing on material gain

Naturally, the one belt, one road has enjoyed a huge popular support from the Chinese population. This is not only owing to the fact that President Xi himself enjoys a significantly high level of popular support, but also because the one belt, one road links to the historical trade route, Silk Road, which represented the golden period of China’s Tang dynasty and was responsible for over 50 percent of the world’s output then. It also links to China’s rejuvenation and the Chinese dream that Xi has been saying about.

However, this policy is more than just a strategy for China to leverage its economic might to increase its influence beyond Asia, this initiative is also part of China’s domestic reforms and economic growth. China will need to turn the popular support of the one belt, one road that based on national pride to the one that its citizens can see the material benefits of supporting the initiative in order to sustain the level of enthusiasm.

Last year, the state lender China Development Bank granted loans totaled to $160 billion to countries involved in the one belt, one road. Xi has also announced China’s commitment to spend $900bn to fund the initiative that involves building ports and railways in Africa and Asia. However, most of these countries are low-income economies and thus making a profit return is a slow process. Chinese people will question and in fact, are asking who is paying for the bill and if China is subsidizing development projects in those countries, why isn’t the government doing so in China. The high economic boom of China in the late 80s to early 2000s has created a huge inequality, and many provinces are still living below the poverty line. Social unrest and protests of the inner China have become more frequent and their dissatisfaction will be exacerbated if Chinese people do not see themselves benefiting or even losing out on these foreign projects.

Policy incoherence, internal resource struggle, and ethnic tensions marred implementation of the one belt, one road

Given the size of the Chinese territories, the country borders with a majority of the countries along the one belt, one road. The proximity with other countries give some Chinese provinces the ethnic ties, culture advantages, which mean they could serve an important role in the grand initiative.Related: Can Canadian Crude Compete In Asia?

Xinjiang, for example, is the core area of the Silk Road Economic Belt, which shares a border with eight countries including Mongolia, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India. It is the window to west and deepens cooperation with Central, South and West Asian countries. Yunnan borders with Vietnam, Laos and Myanmar, serves the gateway to Southeast Asia. Fujian province, where many of the overseas Chinese in South-east Asian are originated from, is a core area of the 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road, which goes through several Southeast Asian countries through waters.

While the Chinese central government is expecting its different regions to use its comparative advantages to support the one belt, one road, this strategic deployment is constrained by the capacity of local governments.

Local governments lack sufficient understanding of the one belt, one road, especially those countries along the one belt, one road. The one belt, one road is a top-down policy, and local governments are often mobilizing their efforts to understand the central government’s intention, not the essence of a policy.

Another constraint is internal resources struggle among different regions. The concern of missing out has led to competition for resource between different provinces. Regions are often not aware of the events and discussions happening in their neighboring regions, and when they do, they often think this has nothing to do with them. Gansu, Qinghai, and Xinjiang, for example, share the border and with their geographic and cultural advantages are tasked to focus on cooperation with Central Asia and Western Asia, but there has been little synergy between these provincial governments. Xenophobic and conservative is very severe in many parts of China and the central government needs to push for better regional integration and coordination mechanisms for the grand strategy to bear fruits.

Final constraint is the ethnic tensions within China, such as Xinjiang and Tibet. Both regions have demanded more autonomy and tensions with the central government have led to violent outbreaks against civilians and properties. Separatist movements driven by ethnic conflicts fuse terrorist activities within China as well as in nearby countries along the routes of the one belt, one road.

Related: Aramco Aims To Take Over The Offshore Rig Market

Not all go-global companies are made equal

Many of the Chinese companies that are taking their business abroad branded themselves as part of the one belt, one road, in order to receive support and preferential access from the Chinese government, but whether they are actually contributing to the one belt, one road initiative is questionable. With increasing number of Chinese enterprises expanding their activities in countries along the trade routes, some they are doing more harm to China’s image than promoting the one belt, one road. While it is encouraging to see the high level of support from Chinese companies, for whatever reason, the unfortunate truth is that not all leading domestic Chinese companies are able to serve the one belt, one road as they are constrained by traditions, culture, and language barriers. Corruption, damage to the local environment, and cultural and political insensitiveness are all the potential risks that would undermine China’s efforts to push out the grand vision that pledges to be implemented based on mutual respects and mutual cooperation.

Final thoughts

Last week 29 head of states, along with other 1500 delegates from over 130 countries gathered in Beijing for a two-day conference, “The Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation”, to discuss the one belt, one road initiative. The global event ended with 270 signed deliverables for policy coordination, infrastructure, trade, investment, and people to people exchanges. China’s grand vision to deepen connectivity and expand trades continues to receive a mixture of response. However, one thing for sure is that many countries and companies want to be part of the conversation, whether they support, suspect or have unanswered questions. China will not only need to be sensitive to how the international community react, but also how its domestic factors influence the implementation and the success of this grand initiative.

By Global Risk Insights

Why ‘Gorkhaland’ Will Be Economically Viable


Swarajyamag

Jaideep Mazumdar

- Jun 23, 2017, 4:29 pm

 

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SNAPSHOT

In contrast to the narrative of ‘Gorkhaland’ being a burden on the union government, separating the hills may actually not just boost the economy of the region but also India’s security by becoming a front-line state against Chinese aggression in the region.

One of the arguments against the formation of Gorkhaland—a separate state comprising the Darjeeling hills and the Dooars area of North Bengal—as is being demanded by the Gorkhas (Nepali-speaking citizens of India), is that the proposed state would be wholly dependent on the union government for all its needs. But this narrative, being espoused by Bengalis who want Bengal to retain its tenuous and unethical hold over the Darjeeling Hills and Dooars (D and D), is totally false.

Fact is, the proposed Gorkhaland state comprising the Darjeeling hills and large parts of the Dooars (which was part of the Kamata kingdom under the Koch dynasty before being captured by Bhutan and then by the British through the Treaty of Sinchula in 1865 after the Anglo-Bhutan War) can be a revenue-surplus state unlike the debt-laden West Bengal. The proposed state has tremendous potential in emerging as a high earner among all the states of the country.

Darjeeling and Dooars are richly endowed by nature. And the three ‘Ts’—tea, tourism and timber—are the money-spinners of this region. The region also has a lot of untapped potential to generate hydel power. Since the proposed Gorkhaland state will have borders with China (through Sikkim), Bangladesh, Bhutan and Nepal, cross-border trade will also bring in a lot of revenue. The region, being one of the prime 25 biodiversity hotspots in the world and with its wealth of flora and fauna, will also be able to earn a lot from eco-tourism.

Apart from the issues of a separate identity for the Gorkhas (Nepali-speaking citizens of India) and that the region and its people have nothing in common (linguistically, culturally and emotionally) with the rest of Bengal, the criminal neglect of D and D by successive governments in Bengal over the past 70 years has fuelled the demand for Gorkhaland. Not only is physical infrastructure in a mess in the region, little has been invested in healthcare, education, sanitation, livelihood projects, developing tourism, agriculture, floriculture and horticulture and even the showpiece toy train—the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway (DHR) that was accorded UNESCO World Heritage tag in 1999—that is the pride of the hills wallows in utter neglect.

Tourism

The D and D region gets around 5 lakh domestic tourists and around 50,000 foreign tourists every year. Unfortunately, due to poor infrastructure, most of these are low-budget tourists who do not contribute much to the local economy. Almost all the budget hotels in the region are operated on lease by Bengalis from the rest of the state and the locals are only employed as lowly-paid waiters and cooks. “So the locals are only marginal stakeholders in the multi-crore tourism sector,” said Sunil Pradhan, a tour operator.

D and D was once a high-end tourist destination that would attract high-spending international and domestic tourists. “The high-spending tourist stays in expensive hotels either run by locals or those who employ locals in management positions, hires local vehicles, spends a lot of meals, buys many mementoes and thus contributes a lot to the local economy,” Pradhan explained.

In stark contrast, the budget tourists who flock to D and D from the rest of Bengal and other parts of the country, as well as the backpackers from abroad, stay in budget hotels run by Bengalis, spend little on food and sight-seeing and nothing much on shopping. So the locals don’t benefit from the budget tourists.

Locals believe it was a sinister ploy to convert D and D, especially Darjeeling (Dooars became a tourist destination only recently), into a destination for the budget traveller. “It was done to satisfy the travel urges of the lower middle class and middle class Bengalis who were the supporters of the Left (which ruled the state for 34 years) and now the Trinamool. Making Darjeeling a low-end travel destination was a deliberate ploy to appease the overwhelming majority of Bengalis of Bengal who are low-budget tourists,” said Binita Rai, a senior executive with a star-category heritage hotel in Darjeeling.

Successive Bengal governments did not invest in tourism infrastructure or develop new tourist spots in the hills. “Many amenities aimed at the high-end tourists could have been developed, like golf courses, adventure sports and tea tourism. But while Darjeeling’s infrastructure was allowed to rot away, hotels catering to the backpackers and low-end tourists were encouraged to come up,”said Rai.

Under the proposed Gorkhaland state, says Sikkim Central University’s founding vice-chancellor Mahendra P Lama, Darjeeling can once again be transformed into a high-end tourist destination. “A lot of things can be done to attract the high-end tourists,” he said. A seminal study carried out by Lama says that the proposed Gorkhaland state can generate at least Rs 500 crore a year from tourism. “D and D region generates about Rs 40 crore as revenue from tourism every year for Bengal, but little of that money goes to the local people. With Gorkhaland, the earnings from this sector will not only increase, it is the people of the hills and the Dooars who will benefit,” said Lama, who used to teach at Jawaharlal Nehru Univeristy’s school of international studies and specialises in development economics.

Tea

Darjeeling contributes only 0.9 per cent to India’s total annual tea production of 1200 million kilos. But the 11 million kilos of Darjeeling tea is premium quality and is globally acknowledged as the ‘champagne of tea’. The average price of Darjeeling tea is Rs 500 a kilo, but the better quality Darjeeling tea commands astronomical prices through private sales, touching even Rs 2 lakh a kilo. Though the Darjeeling Tea Association (DTA) does not release any figures officially about the total sales proceeds from Darjeeling tea, industry insiders estimate that Darjeeling tea fetches about Rs 1500 crores annually.

Since all the tea gardens in the hills are owned by companies with their headquarters in Kolkata, all the revenue from this tea goes to the coffers of the Bengal government. The local people of the hills are employed only as poorly-paid labourers and supervisors in the tea gardens and thus have only marginal stakes in the trade. Not a single garden is owned by a Gorkha, and just a handful of them are in managerial ranks in the gardens.

“All the profits from Darjeeling tea are taken away to Kolkata. So of what benefit has been Darjeeling tea to the people of Darjeeling? In a Gorkhaland state, the revenue from the tea will accrue to the hills and the hills will prosper.

One of the primary reasons for Bengal’s opposition to Gorkhaland is that it will lose out on this revenue and will slide further into poverty. But Bengal has never looked on the people of the hills and the Dooars as equals and Bengal has never spent even a fraction of what it earns from Darjeeling tea on the hills,” said Professor Lama.

A Gorkhaland state, he adds, will pay special attention to rejuvenating the tea estates and improving the marketing of Darjeeling tea in international markets so as to improve its quality and the price it fetches. Darjeeling tea, estimates Lama, can easily earn Rs 1800 crore a year and with the revenues going to Gorkhaland, the state can easily become a financially self-sufficient one.

Timber & forest produce

Though timber trade is now restricted, the Bengal government’s forest department earns an estimated Rs 100 crore a year from sale of timber from its teak and sal plantations in the D and D region. “With proper marketing and streamlining the auction process to plug existing leakages, the earnings from timber can go up to Rs 200 crore a year,” said Lama.

The region is also home to a wide variety of medicinal plants, but no effort has been made to conduct even a semblance of research on this. “If research and development facilities are set up and medicinal plants are harvested properly, the D and D region can earn a lot through patents and manufacture of medicines. The pristine air and water quality of this region makes it eminently suitable for setting up of non-polluting pharmaceutical industries (as in Sikkim),” said Professor Lama.

Another area that has been neglected all these decades is the traditional medicinal and knowledge systems. The traditional folk medicines and knowledge systems of the Jhankris, the PhedangmasDhamisBonbosPowsNejums and Bumthings (all sub-tribes of folk doctors belonging to the Gorkhas, Bhutias, Lepchas and other communities of the region) have never been documented and promoted. “This is also an area that can generate a lot of revenue and can become a USP of the Gorkhaland state,”said Lama.

Hydel power

Asia’s first hydro-power plant came up at Sidrapong near Darjeeling town in 1897. Though the region has tremendous potential to generate hydel power through small dams, no effort has ever been made by the Bengal governments to harness this potential. It is a cruel irony that despite having such potential, the Darjeeling Hills and Dooars suffer from debilitating power cuts all year round.

According to studies by experts, mini and micro hydel plants that do not disturb the ecology of the region can generate thousands of megawatts of power. If properly harnessed, the Teesta, Mechi, Rangeet, Balasun, Relli and Sankosh rivers that flow through the region can generate up to 7500 MW of power. That can not only fully meet the needs of the needs of the region, the surplus can also be fed to the national grid to earn an estimated Rs 100 crore a month for Gorkhaland.

Flora and fauna

The D and D region is blessed with a fascinating variety of flora and fauna, starting right from the Himalayan herbs and shrubs in the upper reaches to the sub-tropical variety in the foothills. It has the Singalila, Mahananda, Jaldapara, Gorumara and Neora Valley national parks, the region also has the Buxa Tiger Reserve, the Senchal Wildlife Sanctuary and many other reserve forests. “Unfortunately, the flora and fauna of this region has never been promoted properly. With good promotion and development of proper infrastructure under a Gorkhaland state, all these national parks and wildlife reserves can attract thousands of wildlife lovers and researchers from across the globe. And a lot of revenue can be generated from this,” said Professor Lama.

Though it is difficult to put a figure to it, conservative estimates say that of these wildlife sanctuaries and forests are promoted properly after putting in place non-invasive and eco-friendly infrastructure, about Rs 400 crore can be generated every year from tourists and researchers. That would be a substantial revenue earning for a small state like Gorkhaland.

Border trade and other activities

The D and D region that would make up the Gorkhaland state will have borders with Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan and Tibet (through Sikkim). International trade can then generate a lot of revenue. “All these decades, the Bengal government has shown no interest in developing border trade. It’s focus has always been south Bengal. This will not change and no matter what the rulers of Bengal proclaim, they will never pay attention to the D and D region. So trade through the international borders can develop only under a Gorkhaland state,” said Daniel Lepcha, a Mumbai-based economist who hails from the region. Lepcha quotes a study by a local trade body to contend that border trade can go up to the volume of Rs 1000 crore a year. At present, the volumes are negligible.

Gorkhaland will also benefit by being a gateway to North East India and to Southeast and East Asia. Professor Lama says it would be included in the North Eastern Council (NEC) and, apart from getting more attention and funds for development, Gorkhaland would also emerge as a prime investment destination since it would be a tax-free state like Sikkim. Gorkhaland will, as Lama says, complete the definition of North East India.

The Darjeeling hills also have a number of premier educational institutions like the 194-year-old St Paul's School, the 129-year-old St Joseph's School (North Point) and the 110-year-old Goethals Memorial School, apart from many others. These schools used to attract students from United Kingdom, Europe and Singapore till not very long ago. “Their standards have been allowed to decline by apathetic Bengal governments and periodic unrest in the hills. Under Gorkhaland, these schools can be revived once again and new-age schools, colleges, management and higher technical institutes can be set up to turn this region into the education hub it once was. The climate of the hills, the positive and cheerful disposition of the local people, and the rich biodiversity of this region can make it a prime research hub as well,” said prominent educationist S K Rai.

Moreover, a Gorkhaland state boosts India’s security by becoming a front-line state against Chinese aggression in the region. “Gorkhaland can emerge as a front-ranking state of India and will, right from the very start, be an economically self-sustaining state unlike West Bengal. There is little prospect for West Bengal to improve its finances and become self-reliant in terms of revenue. Bengal is keeping the D and D region backward and dragging it from realising its true potential. Successive rulers of Bengal have perfected the art of internally colonising the D and D region and the present ruler, Mamata Banerjee, has gone a few steps forward by implementing a divide-and-rule policy. The alienation of the D and D region from the rest of Bengal is complete and the divide is complete and irreparable. Gorkhaland is a must now,” said Gorkha Janmukti Morcha leader Roshan Giri. The Morcha has been spearheading the Gorkhaland movement

Bill tabled in US House to revoke Pakistan's ally status


By PTI | Updated: Jun 23, 2017, 02.03 PM IST

Last August, the then Secretary of Defence, Ash Carter, withheld USD 300 million in military reimbursements because he could not certify that Pakistan was taking adequate action against the Haqqani network.

WASHINGTON: A bipartisan bill seeking to revoke Pakistan's status as major non-NATO ally (MNNA) to the US has been introduced in the House of Representatives by two top lawmakers, saying the country failed to effectively fight terrorism

Introduced by Republican Congressman Ted Poe and Democratic lawmaker Rick Nolan, the legislation calls for revoking MNNA status of Pakistan, which was granted to it in 2004 by the then president, George Bush, in an effort to get the country to help the US fight al-Qaeda and the Taliban

"Pakistan must be held accountable for the American blood on its hands," said Poe, who is a member of the Foreign Affairs Committee and serves as chairman of the Subcommittee on Terrorism, Non-proliferation and Trade. 

"For years, Pakistan has acted as a Benedict Arnold ally of the United States. From harbouring Osama bin laden to backing the Taliban, Pakistan has stubbornly refused to go after, in any meaningful way, terrorists that actively seek to harm opposing ideologies," he said. 

'Benedict Arnold' is a byword in the US for treason or betrayal. Benedict Arnold was a general during the American Revolutionary War who originally fought for the American Continental Army but defected to the British Army. 

"We must make a clean break with Pakistan, but at the very least, we should stop providing them the eligibility to obtain our own sophisticated weaponry in an expedited process granting them a privileged status reserved for our closest allies," Poe said. 

Under MNNA, a country is eligible for priority delivery of defence materials, an expedited arms sale process and a US loan guarantee programme, which backs up loans issued by private banks to finance arms exports. 

It can also stockpile US military hardware, participate in defence research and development programmes and be sold more sophisticated weaponry. 

Last August, the then Secretary of Defence,Ash Carter, withheld USD 300 million in military reimbursements because he could not certify that Pakistan was taking adequate action against the Haqqani network, as required by the National Defence Authorisation Act (NDAA). 

"Time and time again, Pakistan has taken advantage of America's goodwill and demonstrated that they are no friend and ally of the United States," Nolan said. 

"The fact is, the billions of dollars we have sent to Pakistan over the last 15 years has done nothing to effectively fight terrorism and make us safer. It is time to wake up to the fact that Pakistan has ties to the same terrorist organisations which they claim to be fighting," he said. 

The legislation will protect American taxpayer dollars and make the US and the world safer, Nolan said.

Samjhauta blast: UPA government let off prime accused Pakistani national despite evidence to float ‘Hindu Terror’ myth

By

 June 22, 2017 

Samjhauta Express blast: How officials connived to ensure prime accused Pakistani national was let off despite evidence to nail him

The 2007 Samjhauta Express bombing was a terrorist attack that struck around midnight on February 18, 2007. Bombs were set off in two carriages, both filled with passengers, just after the train passed Diwana station near Panipat in Haryana.

Over a decade after the 2007 Samjhauta Express blast that claimed the lives of 68 passengers, mostly Pakistanis, comes a shocking revelation that once again puts the spotlight on the sinister ploy of the then political establishment to paint a religious cover over the entire incident.

Armed with power and intent on using the ghastly incident to push a political agenda, top officials gave an ugly twist to the incident just because the government of the day was bent on proving that the incident was a conspiracy of the so-called ‘Hindu militants’.

A retired officer involved in the investigating into the case has now laid bare how officials at that time not only twisted the entire case to give it a saffron touch but also let the main accused, arrested soon after the incident, go scot-free to just fulfill their agenda.

The whistleblower here is Gurdeep (now retired), who served as the Investigating Officer in the case. Gurdeep revealed before a court that a Pakistani national was arrested within a fortnight of the incident but was allowed to return to his country. This, despite the fact that he was the prime accused in the case.

The revelation by Gurdeep was made 12 days ago in a court. According to him, the arrested person, identified as Azmat Ali, was discharged in the case by top officials who were part of the probe team.

“I was summoned for cross examining on June 9. He (Ali) was discharged by the officials. The court had granted 14-day custody to police… police had visited all cities and places where he (Ali) had stayed. We had verified … the team which interrogated him comprised DIG RC Mishra, Additional DGP Haryana, SP Crime…. and others,” he said.

As per the documents submitted in the court by police, Ali was a Pakistani national. He was arrested near Attari border by Government Railway Police (GRP) on March 1, 2007 while he was exploring ways to return to Pakistan. During investigation, it was found that Ali was not carrying a passport, visa or any legal paper. He was later sent to the Amritsar Central Jail. During interrogation, Ali informed that he had arrived here on November 3, 2006 and that he was a Pakistani national. According to him, he was born to Mohammad Sharif and was a resident of Lahore. His residential address was: House no. 24, Gali no. 51, Hamam Street, Dist. Lahore (Pakistan).

After the blast, the description of the man who was believed to have planted the bomb in the ill-fated train was described by two eyewitnesses (Shaukat Ali and Rukhsana). Ali matched the description was and this was conveyed to the team which was probing the blast. Later, Ali was handed over to the team of police probing the incident. The probe team had on March 6, 2007, sought 14-day custody of Ali. In its affidavit, the police had clearly told the court that Ali was arrested by the GRP on the basis of a sketch developed by security forces following inputs provided by the eyewitnesses. Besides, Ali’s sketch was also extensively circulated in media. The court had at that time sent Ali to 14-day police custody.

During the investigation, Ali also revealed that after landing here, he undertook a recce of Delhi, Mumbai, Goa, Kanpur, Allahabad, Shikohabad, Surat, Ajmer Sharif and other prominent cities. Each time, he produced fake identity cards to book hotels. Gurdeep claimed that police visited each of the hotels where Ali had stayed and spoke to people with whom he had met.

Shockingly though, on March 20, when Ali’s 14-day police custody ended, the court granted him bail because police told the court that investigation was over and no concrete evidence of Ali’s involvement was found in the blast.

In its bail order, the court noted the police’s version that ‘since the investigation was over and no proofs have been found against him (Ali), he should be discharged from the case’.

As per the documents available with India TV, the then UPA government had said that LeT was involved in the blast. But on July 21, 2010, top police officials had held a closed-door meeting. The noting of the meeting, accessed by India TV, says that the Haryana Police had failed to take the probe to a logical conclusion and thus the case should be handed over to the NIA. It was only during this meeting, when the officials decided to probe the role of Hindu groups in the blast.

This is a very serious issue. Arrested Pakistani  man was allowed to return to his country and people of our country were wrongly framed. This was done at the behest of then government. The government wanted to give the entire incident a political touch,” Haryana Minister Anil Vij said.

“…the Haryana Police wanted to grill the arrested man but he was allowed to return to Pakistan despite the fact the he was not carrying passport, documents… This is a clear betrayal… this can’t be possible without Sonia Gandhi’s intervention. This must be probed thoroughly,” BJP leader Subramanian Swamy said.

The 2007 Samjhauta Express bombing was a terrorist attack that struck around midnight on February 18, 2007. Bombs were set off in two carriages, both filled with passengers, just after the train passed Diwana station near Panipat in Haryana. 68 people were killed in the incident. Of the 68 fatalities, most were Pakistani civilians.

Courtesy: India TV